Brian Gaylord, Ph.D.

Brian Gaylord

Unit
College of Biological Sciences
Evolution and Ecology
Bodega Marine Laboratory

Bodega Marine Laboratory
Bodega Marine Laboratory, PO Box 247, 2099 Westshore Rd, Bodega Bay CA 94923
Bio

Research | Teaching | Lab | Prospective Students | Publications

Research Interests

Gaylord academic tree

Marine ecomechanics

The Gaylord lab conducts interdisciplinary research at the interface of biomechanics and marine ecology.  Although the problems we tackle include a range of topics and span multiple disciplines, most have some connection to one or both of two core questions:  How do organisms with different sizes, shapes, and life histories cope with and/or benefit from their physical surroundings?  How do aspects of the physical environment affect organism distributions and population characteristics over space and time?

Within the context of these two questions, we often focus on organismal and ecological problems where progress has been thwarted due to challenges in understanding linkages between biology and fluid flow.  For example, we explore topics such as potential hydrodynamic controls on size and shape in marine organisms, functional consequences of particular seaweed and invertebrate body designs, processes driving physical disturbance in coastal habitats, the influence of ocean flows on species range boundaries, the mechanics of nearshore mixing and transport as they apply to propagule dispersal and population structure, effects of turbulence on external fertilization and larval settlement, and organismal and ecological responses to ocean acidification.  In conducting this work, we typically employ some combination of field, laboratory, and theoretical approaches.

Hydrodynamics of wave-swept organisms

Hydrodynamics of wave-swept organismsOur lab group has worked for many years to understand the ways in which fluid flow imposes forces on marine plants and animals, and the consequences these forces have for organism survival and reproduction.  For example, large waves can induce physical disturbance on rocky shores and within kelp forests.  At the same time, intense shoreline turbulence may cue tiny larvae that they have reached appropriate habitat, spurring precocious settlement.

 

 

Selected publications:

Gaylord, B., J. Hodin, and M.C. Ferner.  2013.  Turbulent shear spurs settlement in larval sea urchins.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 110: 6901-6906.

sensors that measure flow and forceDenny, M.W., and B. Gaylord.  2010.  Marine ecomechanics.  Annual Review of Marine Science 2: 89-114.

Gaylord, B.  2008.  Hydrodynamic context for considering turbulence impacts on external fertilization.  Biological Bulletin 214: 315-318.

Gaylord, B., M.W. Denny, and M.A.R. Koehl.  2008.  Flow forces on seaweeds: Field evidence for roles of wave impingement and organism inertia.  Biological Bulletin 215: 295-308.

Denny, M., and B. Gaylord.  2002.  The mechanics of wave-swept algae.  Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 1355-1362.

Gaylord, B.  2000.  Biological implications of surf-zone flow complexity.  Limnology and Oceanography 45: 174-188.

Gaylord, B.  1999.  Detailing agents of physical disturbance: Wave-induced velocities and accelerations on a rocky shore.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 239: 85-124.

Gaylord, B., and M.W. Denny.  1997.  Flow and flexibility I: Effects of size, shape, and stiffness in determining wave forces on the stipitate kelps, Pterygophora californica and Eisenia arborea.  Journal of Experimental Biology 200: 3141-3164.

Gaylord, B., C.A. Blanchette, and M.W. Denny.  1994.  Mechanical consequences of size in wave-swept algae.  Ecological Monographs 64: 287-313.

Biomechanics of flexible body plans

Biomechanics of flexible body plansUnlike human-fabricated objects or structures, which are typically built using stiff materials (like metals, hard plastic, or wood), organisms in nature often rely on stretchy or squishy materials.  Our lab group is interested in how mechanically flexible organisms move in response to applied forces, and the implications such movement might have for the degree to which they are bent or pulled.  Such issues have important implications for understanding the disturbance ecology of critical habitat-forming subtidal and intertidal seaweeds, among many other species. 

Selected publications:

Gaylord, B., M.W. Denny, and M.A.R. Koehl.  2008.  Flow forces on seaweeds: Field evidence for roles of wave impingement and organism inertia.  Biological Bulletin 215: 295-308.

Ferner, M.C., and B. Gaylord.  2008.  Flexibility foils filter function: Structural limitations on suspension feeding.  Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 3563-3572.

Sea anemone growing on kelpGaylord, B., M.W. Denny, and M.A.R. Koehl.  2003.  Modulation of wave forces on kelp canopies by alongshore currents.  Limnology and Oceanography 48: 860-871.

Denny, M., and B. Gaylord.  2002.  The mechanics of wave-swept algae.  Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 1355-1362.

Gaylord, B., B.B. Hale, and M.W. Denny.  2001.  Consequences of transient fluid forces for compliant benthic organisms.  Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 1347-1360.

Denny, M., B. Gaylord, B. Helmuth, and T. Daniel.  1998.  The menace of momentum: Dynamic forces on flexible organisms.  Limnology and Oceanography 43: 955-968.

Gaylord, B., and M.W. Denny.  1997.  Flow and flexibility I: Effects of size, shape, and stiffness in determining wave forces on the stipitate kelps, Pterygophora californica and Eisenia arborea.  Journal of Experimental Biology 200: 3141-3164.

Denny, M.W., B.P. Gaylord, and E.A. Cowan.  1997.  Flow and flexibility II: The roles of size and shape in determining wave forces on the bull kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana.  Journal of Experimental Biology 200: 3165-3183.

Dispersal of marine larvae and algal spores

giant kelpPropagule dispersal is one of the key processes that links marine populations, and is a major area of inquiry (some scientists have called it “the biggest black box in marine ecology”).  Our group studies how agents of ocean transport interact to drive meter-to-kilometer-scale dispersal of reproductive propagules in nearshore environments.  Our efforts have allowed us to quantify the degree of connectivity among kelp forests and to explore how larval dispersal influences distributional patterns of species across their ranges. 

Selected publications:

Nickols, K.J., S.H. Miller, B. Gaylord, S.G. Morgan, and J.L. Largier.  2013.  Spatial differences in larval abundance within the coastal boundary layer impact supply to shoreline habitats.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 494: 191-203.

Nickols, K.J., B. Gaylord, and J.L. Largier.  2012.  The coastal boundary layer: Predictable current structure decreases alongshore transport and alters scales of dispersal.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 464: 17-35.

Gaines, S.D., B. Gaylord, L.R. Gerber, A. Hastings, and B. Kinlan.  2007.  Connecting places: The ecological consequences of dispersal in the sea.  Oceanography 20: 90-99.

Gaylord, B., J. Rosman, D.C. Reed, J.R. Koseff, J. Fram, S. MacIntyre, K. Arkema, C. McDonald, M.A. Brzezinski, J.L. Largier, S.G. Monismith, P.T. Raimondi, and B. Mardian.  2007.  Spatial patterns of flow and their modification within and around a giant kelp forest.  Limnology and Oceanography 52: 1838-1852.

Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, P.T. Raimondi, and L. Washburn.  2006.  Macroalgal spore dispersal in coastal environments: Mechanistic insights revealed by theory and experiment.  Ecological Monographs 76: 481-502.

Sagarin, R.D., S.D. Gaines, and B. Gaylord.  2006.  Moving beyond the assumptions to understand abundance distributions across the ranges of species.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 524-530.

Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, L. Washburn, and P.T. Raimondi.  2004.  Physical-biological coupling in spore dispersal of kelp forest macroalgae.  Journal of Marine Systems 49: 19-39.

Siegel, D.A., B.P. Kinlan, B. Gaylord, and S.D. Gaines.  2003.  Lagrangian descriptions of marine larval dispersion.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 260: 83-96.

Gaines, S.D., B. Gaylord, and J.L. Largier.  2003.  Avoiding current oversights in marine reserve design.  Ecological Applications 13: S32-S46 (Special Issue on Marine Reserves).

Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, P.T. Raimondi, L. Washburn, and S.R. McLean.  2002.  A physically based model of macroalgal spore dispersal in the wave and current-dominated nearshore.  Ecology 83: 1239-1251.

Gaylord, B., and S.D. Gaines.  2000.  Temperature or transport? Range limits in marine species mediated solely by flow.  American Naturalist 155: 769-789.

Effects of aquatic vegetation on flow and water column properties

giant kelp canopyCanopy-forming kelps create some of the most important biogenic habitats found along rocky coasts in temperate seas.  However, the relationship of these species to their fluid surroundings is only partly understood.  Together with colleagues, we examine how kelp forests alter flows that that enter and pass around their boundaries.  Ultimately, we aim to determine rates of within-bed delivery, consumption, and production of a variety of waterborne subsidies (e.g., nitrate and nitrite, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, phytoplankton).  A number of these subsidies are of general ecosystem interest and support organisms that span multiple trophic levels.

Selected publications:

Gaylord, B., K.J. Nickols, and L. Jurgens.  2012.  Roles of transport and mixing processes in kelp forest ecology.  Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 997-1007.

mohawk kelp forest aerialStewart, H.L , J.P. Fram, D.C. Reed, S.L. Williams, M.A. Brzezinski, S. MacIntyre, and B. Gaylord.  2009.  Differences in growth, morphology and tissue C and N of Macrocystis pyrifera within and at the outer edge of a giant kelp forest in California, USA.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 375: 101-112.

Fram, J.P., H.L. Stewart, M.A. Brzezinski, B. Gaylord, D.C. Reed, S.L. Williams, and S. MacIntyre.  2008.  Physical pathways and utilization of nitrate supply to the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera.  Limnology and Oceanography 53: 1589-1603.

Gaylord, B., J. Rosman, D.C. Reed, J.R. Koseff, J. Fram, S. MacIntyre, K. Arkema, C. McDonald, M.A. Brzezinski, J.L. Largier, S.G. Monismith, P.T. Raimondi, and B. Mardian.  2007.  Spatial patterns of flow and their modification within and around a giant kelp forest.  Limnology and Oceanography 52: 1838-1852.

Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, L. Washburn, and P.T. Raimondi.  2004.  Physical-biological coupling in spore dispersal of kelp forest macroalgae.  J. Mar. Sys. 49: 19-39.

Gaylord, B., M.W. Denny, and M.A.R. Koehl.  2003.  Modulation of wave forces on kelp canopies by alongshore currents.  Limnology and Oceanography 48: 860-871.

Oceanographic influences on species distributions

Pt ConceptionThere are strong biological-physical linkages in larval dispersal, and we and our colleagues explore the potential role ocean currents may play in modulating organism distributions and establishing range boundaries.  Traditionally, biogeographers have emphasized the influence of temperature in setting limits to range, but the mechanics of transport may also influence spatial patterns of shoreline recruitment and the ability of populations to persist at given locations.  This possibility has important implications for population structure as well as the functioning of marine reserves designed to protect overexploited species. 

 Another question we are examining in this arena relates to the topographic complexity of shorelines.  How do the irregularities associated with embayments or headlands at a variety of scales influence alongshore transport?  Can topographic complexity in coastal boundary layers contribute to local retention of larvae, and if so, to what degree?  These questions and others have direct bearing on population and genetic structure in large numbers of marine species.  

Selected publications:

embayment, sonoma coastNickols, K.J., S.H. Miller, B. Gaylord, S.G. Morgan, and J.L. Largier.  2013.  Spatial differences in larval abundance within the coastal boundary layer impact supply to shoreline habitats.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 494: 191-203.

Nickols, K.J., B. Gaylord, and J.L. Largier.  2012.  The coastal boundary layer: Predictable current structure decreases alongshore transport and alters scales of dispersal.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 464: 17-35.

Gaines, S.D., B. Gaylord, L.R. Gerber, A. Hastings, and B. Kinlan.  2007.  Connecting places: The ecological consequences of dispersal in the sea.  Oceanography 20: 90-99.

Gaylord, B., S.D. Gaines, D.A. Siegel, and M.H. Carr.  2005.  Marine reserves can exploit life history and population structure to potentially increase fisheries yields.  Ecological Applications 15: 2180-2191.

Gaines, S.D., B. Gaylord, and J.L. Largier.  2003.  Avoiding current oversights in marine reserve design.  Ecological Applications 13: S32-S46 (Special Issue on Marine Reserves).

Gaylord, B., and S.D. Gaines.  2000.  Temperature or transport? Range limits in marine species mediated solely by flow.  American Naturalist 155: 769-789.

Effects of ocean acidification

veliger larva of olympia oysterA relatively new area of research for our lab is directed at understanding consequences of ongoing global environmental changes.  Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are reducing ocean pH and altering the carbonate chemistry of seawater, a process termed “ocean acidification.”  Our goal is to determine the potential effects of these chemical changes on a variety of species, including a number that play disproportionately important roles in coastal communities.  We also strive to “scale up,” in an effort to better prepare for broader ecological effects that may arise in coming decades.  We are undertaking this line of research in concert with colleagues at BML, the UC Davis main campus, and elsewhere (Bodega Ocean Acidification Research group).

Selected publications:

Kroeker, K.J., E. Sanford, B.M. Jellison, and B. Gaylord.  2014.  Predicting the effects of ocean acidification on predator-prey interactions: A conceptual framework based on coastal molluscs.  Biological Bulletin 226: 211-222.

Kroeker, K.J., B. Gaylord, T.M. Hill, J.D. Hosfelt, S.H. Miller, and E. Sanford.  2014.  The role of temperature in determining species’ vulnerability to ocean acidification: A case study using Mytilus galloprovincialis. PLoS One 9: e100353, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100353.

Sanford, E., B. Gaylord, A. Hettinger, E.A. Lenz, K. Meyer, and T.M. Hill.  2014.  Ocean acidification increases the vulnerability of native oysters to predation by invasive snails.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281, doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2681.

Hettinger, A., E. Sanford, T.M. Hill, J.D. Hosfelt, A.D. Russell, and B. Gaylord.  2013.  The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification.  Biogeosciences 10: 6629-6638.

Hettinger, A., E. Sanford, T.M. Hill, E.A. Lenz, A.D. Russell, and B. Gaylord.  2013.  Larval carry-over effects from ocean acidification persist in the natural environment.  Global Change Biology 19: 3317-3326.

Pespeni, M.H., E. Sanford, B. Gaylord, T.M. Hill, J.D. Hosfelt, M. LaVigne, E.A. Lenz, A.D. Russell, M.K. Young, and S.R Palumbi. 2013.  Evolutionary change during experimental ocean acidification.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 110: 6937-6942.

LaVigne, M., T.M. Hill, E. Sanford, B. Gaylord, A.D. Russell, E.A. Lenz, J.D. Hosfelt, M.K. Young.  2013.  Effects of increased pCO2 and geographic origin on purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite elemental composition.  Biogeosciences 10: 3465-3477.

Hettinger, A., E. Sanford, T.M. Hill, A.D. Russell, K.N. Sato, J. Hoey, M. Forsch, H.N. Page, and B. Gaylord.  2012.  Persistent carry-over effects of planktonic exposure to ocean acidification in the Olympia oyster.  Ecology 93: 2758-2768.

Gaylord, B., T.M. Hill, E.D. Sanford, E.A. Lenz, L.A. Jacobs, K.N. Sato, A.D. Russell, and A. Hettinger.  2011.  Functional impacts of ocean acidification in an ecologically critical foundation species.  Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 2586-2594.  (Published as a “Highlights 2011” article for the journal).

Teaching on the UC Davis main campus

Join the Gaylord LabEVE 101. Introduction to Ecology. This is a 4-unit lecture/discussion course that operates as a general survey of the principles of ecology. I typically teach this course either by myself or with a co-instructor during Winter or Spring quarter. Because I drive over from my laboratory in Bodega Bay for each class period (2 hrs each way), I usually try to offer it on a Tuesday/Thursday cycle.

Teaching at the Bodega Marine Laboratory

**(These courses are taught at the coast, away from main campus, during the summer. Consult the BML student information web pages for information on housing and applications)**

EVE 106. Mechanical Design in Organisms. This is a hands-on, 3-unit lecture/lab/field course I offer at the coast in Bodega Bay (away from main campus!). It explores fundamental principles in the form and function of organisms. It examines how basic properties of size, shape, structure, and habitat constrain ways in which plants and animals interact and cope with their physical surroundings. I teach this course during Summer Session I. Note that students often take this course at the same time as Eric Sanford’s Experimental Invertebrate Biology class (EVE 114), as these two courses complement one another quite nicely.

teaching posterEVE 111. Marine Environmental Issues. This 1-unit course examines critical environmental issues occurring in coastal waters. It functions to link material from several concurrent courses at BML to develop an integrative understanding of marine environments and their conservation. I co-teach this class with Eric Sanford during Summer Session I.

BIS 124. Coastal Marine Research. In this 3-unit course, students conduct independent research on topics related to either EVE 106 (Mechanical Design in Organisms) or EVE 114 (Experimental Invertebrate Biology). Students select either Brian Gaylord or Eric Sanford to be their primary mentor. However, integrative topics that draw on the expertise of several BML faculty members are also encouraged.

The Gaylord Lab

Graduate Students and technical staff

B JellisonBrittany Jellison, I am broadly interested in how coastal marine organisms are acclimating and adapting to human-altered environments.  Continued anthropogenic-CO2 production is projected to increase the rate of global environmental change. A major component of these changes is an alteration to ocean carbonate chemistry, including a reduction in pH and carbonate saturation, called “ocean acidification”. Particular marine organisms are sensitive to these changes in seawater chemistry through shifts in physiological acid-base balance and reduction in the availability of carbonate ions used to produce shells. Recent work has focused primarily on the impairment of acidification on individual shell-building species. However, my research aims to include species interactions to gain a broader perspective on the effects of elevated CO2 at the scale of communities. Currently, I am investigating the effects of ocean acidification on predator prey dynamics by focusing on predator cue detection in an intertidal snail under elevated CO2. Another branch of my research will explore the adaptive capacity of coastal organisms to projected acidified conditions by exploring geographic variation in tolerance to shifts in carbonate chemistry.

G NgGabriel Ng, I am interested in behavioral ecology and examining how marine animals alter their behavior in response to varying environments. Presently, I am investigating how foraging changes in prey animals not just in the presence of their predators but also in the presence of their predators’ predators. I am also interested in how changes in biological structures from ocean acidification can impact decision-making. Do changes in the properties of gastropod shells from acidified waters influence, which shells hermit crabs choose? While my study system is currently in the intertidal zone, I am hoping to ask similar questions in other areas, such as zooplankton settlement and studying what aspects of the environment influence their decision to metamorphose. 

A NinokawaAaron Ninokawa, Ph.D. student. I am interested in how organisms interact with their chemical environment. In particular, I'm interested in how these organisms are not only affected by their environment but how they can shape seawater chemistry through natural metabolic processes such as respiration, photosynthesis, and calcification. Hydrodynamics also play a role in determining how chemicals (hydronium, carbonate, etc) are exchanged between an organism and its environment, and I would like to study how zones of altered hydrodynamics (e.g. diffusion boundary layers, interstices within assemblages of habitat forming organisms) are able to influence the performance of other individuals (particularly larvae and early juveniles) living within these zones.

K ElsmoreKristen Elsmore, Ph.D. student. There are crucial connections between physical attributes of the ocean environment and its rich biology, particularly in a kelp forest system, where sea floor communities link intimately with water column processes. I am interested in context-dependent succession in kelp forests and the effects and influence of changes in hydrodynamic conditions across an inter-annual spectrum.

 

 

G SusnerGrant Susner, Marine Electronics Technician

 

 

 

Former Laboratory and BOAR Consortium Members

  • Annaliese Hettinger, Ph.D. Current position: Postdoctoral Researcher, Bodega Marine Laboratory.
  • Emily Rivest, Postdoctoral Researcher. Current position: Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Sciences Virginia Institute of Marine Science
  • Kristy Kroeker, Postdoctoral Researcher. Current position: Assistant Professor, University of California, Santa Cruz.
  • Seth Miller, Postdoctoral Researcher. Current position: Smithsonian.
  • Michele LaVigne, Postdoctoral Researcher. Current position: Assistant Professor, Bowdoin College.
  • Matt Ferner, Postdoctoral Researcher. Current position: Research Coordinator, San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve.
  • Kerry Nickols, Ph.D. Current position: Assistant Professor, California State University Monterey Bay.
  • Laura Jurgens, Ph.D. Current position: Postdoctoral Researcher, Temple University.
  • Jessica Hosfelt, Jr. Specialist. Current position: M.S. student, University of California, Davis.
  • Kelly Laughlin, Jr. Specialist.
  • Beth Lenz, Jr. Specialist. Current position: Graduate student, University of Hawaii.
  • Kirk Sato, Jr. Specialist. Current position: Graduate student, Scripps Institute of Oceanography.
  • Megan Young, Jr. Specialist.
  • Lisa Jacobs, Jr. Specialist.
  • Stephanie Ho, NSF-sponsored REU student.
  • Rachael Dickey, NSF-sponsored REU student.
  • Matt Petty, NSF-sponsored REU student.

Interested in joining the Gaylord Lab?

We are a lively, cohesive group of hard-working scientists and students interested in interactions between marine organisms and their physical environments. We focus on questions that span multiple levels of organization, from individuals to populations and communities. We mesh field work, laboratory experiments, and theoretical modeling. If you think you might be interested in some of the things you see on our pages, please feel free to email or call us!

We embrace a variety of backgrounds

Certain components of our research extend into arenas of engineering (particularly mechanical or civil engineering). Thus, although most current lab members are card-carrying biologists and ecologists, we are open to students who have other backgrounds and/or who might have a more quantitative bent. Indeed, we use math and equations on a daily basis. That said, the ability to think deeply and logically about issues, and a willingness to “beat one’s head” against tough problems are more important than high-powered math skills. We are an interdisciplinary group and often work as an intellectual (as well as logistical) team in addressing topics that span multiple fields. Very rarely is someone completely on their own when it comes to confronting challenging research questions or hurdles.

Where we are

Join the Gaylord LabOur lab is located in Bodega Bay, California, a little fishing village and resort town situated along the rugged, wave-exposed Sonoma coast. This location places us two hrs from the UC Davis main campus. Practically speaking, entering graduate students typically spend the first year living on or near main campus, taking classes to satisfy degree requirements for their graduate program. Students then transition in their second year to full-time residence at BML where they begin focusing much more intensely on research. BML-resident students (and faculty) still transit routinely over to main campus, of course. In this regard, individuals exploit and/or confront the benefits and challenges of our proximity to the coast (and distance from Davis) in any number of ways. 

Nuts and bolts

Gaylord LabIf you are considering applying to graduate school, your first step should be to contact Brian directly via email. Graduate school admissions operate differently than undergraduate admissions, and it is crucial for you to develop a direct line of communication. Brian’s motivation for wanting to talk and meet with you is to better understand your interests and experiences as they relate to the goals and interests of the lab as a whole.  From your end, you’ll want to make sure that our lab is a place you think you could spend the next several years of your life!  Assuming everything goes as planned, the next step is to submit your application to UC Davis, through the Graduate Group in Ecology (GGE). The deadline is around the middle of December; don’t miss it. Many students apply for National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships, which have their own deadlines. If you garner one of these, you can practically write your own admissions ticket.

Links to additional relevant sites:      

Publications

*Papers lead-authored by students or postdoctoral researchers

Gaylord, B., C.A. Blanchette, and M.W. Denny. 1994. Mechanical consequences of size in wave-swept algae. Ecological Monographs 64: 287-313.

Denny, M.W., and B. Gaylord. 1996. Why the urchin lost its spines: Hydrodynamic forces and survivorship in three echinoids. Journal of Experimental Biology 199: 717-729.

Gaylord, B., and M.W. Denny. 1997. Flow and flexibility I: Effects of size, shape, and stiffness in determining wave forces on the stipitate kelps, Pterygophora californica and Eisenia arborea. Journal of Experimental Biology 200: 3141-3164.

Denny, M.W., B.P. Gaylord, and E.A. Cowan. 1997. Flow and flexibility II: The roles of size and shape in determining wave forces on the bull kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana. Journal of Experimental Biology 200: 3165-3183.

Denny, M., B. Gaylord, B. Helmuth, and T. Daniel. 1998. The menace of momentum: Dynamic forces on flexible organisms. Limnology and Oceanography 43: 955-968. (Highlighted in:  Koehl, M.A.R. 1998. Biomechanics - The quirks of jerks. Nature 396: 621-623).

Gaylord, B. 1999. Detailing agents of physical disturbance: Wave-induced velocities and accelerations on a rocky shore. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 239: 85-124.

Gaylord, B. 2000. Biological implications of surf-zone flow complexity. Limnology and Oceanography 45: 174-188.

Gaylord, B., and S.D. Gaines. 2000. Temperature or transport? Range limits in marine species mediated solely by flow. American Naturalist 155: 769-789.

Gaylord, B., B.B. Hale, and M.W. Denny. 2001. Consequences of transient fluid forces for compliant benthic organisms. Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 1347-1360.

Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, P.T. Raimondi, L. Washburn, and S.R. McLean. 2002. A physically based model of macroalgal spore dispersal in the wave and current-dominated nearshore. Ecology 83: 1239-1251.

Denny, M., and B. Gaylord. 2002. The mechanics of wave-swept algae. Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 1355-1362.

*Wolcott, B.D., and B. Gaylord. 2002. Flow-induced energetic bounds to growth in an intertidal sea anemone. Marine Ecology Progress Series 245: 101-109.

Gaylord, B., M.W. Denny, and M.A.R. Koehl. 2003. Modulation of wave forces on kelp canopies by alongshore currents. Limnology and Oceanography 48: 860-871.

Siegel, D.A., B.P. Kinlan, B. Gaylord, and S.D. Gaines. 2003. Lagrangian descriptions of marine larval dispersion. Marine Ecology Progress Series 260: 83-96.

Gaines, S.D., B. Gaylord, and J.L. Largier. 2003. Avoiding current oversights in marine reserve design. Ecological Applications 13: S32-S46 (Special Issue on Marine Reserves).

Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, L. Washburn, and P.T. Raimondi. 2004. Physical-biological coupling in spore dispersal of kelp forest macroalgae. Journal of Marine Systems 49: 19-39.

Raimondi, P.T., D.C. Reed, B. Gaylord, and L. Washburn. 2004. Effects of self-fertilization in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Ecology 85: 3267-3276.

Gaylord, B., S.D. Gaines, D.A. Siegel, and M.H. Carr. 2005. Marine reserves can exploit life history and population structure to potentially increase fisheries yields. Ecological Applications 15: 2180-2191.

Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, P.T. Raimondi, and L. Washburn. 2006. Macroalgal spore dispersal in coastal environments: Mechanistic insights revealed by theory and experiment. Ecological Monographs 76: 481-502.

Sagarin, R.D., S.D. Gaines, and B. Gaylord. 2006. Moving beyond the assumptions to understand abundance distributions across the ranges of species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 524-530.

Reed, D.C., B P. Kinlan, P.T. Raimondi, L. Washburn, B. Gaylord, and P. T. Drake. 2006. A metapopulation perspective on patch dynamics and connectivity of giant kelp. Pages 353- 386 in J.P. Kritzer and P.F. Sale (eds), Marine Metapopulations. Academic Press, San Diego.

Gaylord, B., J. Rosman, D.C. Reed, J.R. Koseff, J. Fram, S. MacIntyre, K. Arkema, C. McDonald, M.A. Brzezinski, J.L. Largier, S.G. Monismith, P.T. Raimondi, and B. Mardian. 2007. Spatial patterns of flow and their modification within and around a giant kelp forest. Limnology and Oceanography 52: 1838-1852.

Gaylord, B. 2007. Hydrodynamic forces. Pages 277-283 in M.W. Denny and S.D. Gaines (eds), Encyclopedia of tidepools and rocky shores. University of California Press, Berkeley.

*Miller, L.P., and B. Gaylord. 2007. Barriers to flow: The effects of experimental cage structures on water velocities in high-energy subtidal and intertidal environments. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 344: 215-228.

Gaines, S.D., B. Gaylord, L.R. Gerber, A. Hastings, and B. Kinlan. 2007. Connecting places: The ecological consequences of dispersal in the sea. Oceanography 20: 90-99.

*Fram, J.P., H.L. Stewart, M.A. Brzezinski, B. Gaylord, D.C. Reed, S.L. Williams, and S. MacIntyre. 2008. Physical pathways and utilization of nitrate supply to the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Limnology and Oceanography 53: 1589-1603.

Gaylord, B. 2008. (Review of) Jenkins, C.H.M. (ed). Compliant Structures in Nature and Engineering, xxiv + 261 pp. WIT Press, Ashurst, Southampton, UK, 2005. The Quarterly Review of Biology, in press.

Gaylord, B., M.W. Denny, and M.A.R. Koehl. 2008. Flow forces on seaweeds: Field evidence for roles of wave impingement and organism inertia. Biological Bulletin 215: 295-308.

*Ferner, M.C., and B. Gaylord. 2008. Flexibility foils filter function: Structural limitations on suspension feeding. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 3563-3572.

Gaylord, B. 2008. Hydrodynamic context for considering turbulence impacts on external fertilization. Biological Bulletin 214: 315-318.

*Stewart, H.L , J.P. Fram, D.C. Reed, S.L. Williams, M.A. Brzezinski, S. MacIntyre, and B. Gaylord. 2009. Differences in growth, morphology and tissue C and N of Macrocystis pyrifera within and at the outer edge of a giant kelp forest in California, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 375: 101-112.

Gaines, S.D., S. Lester, G. Eckert, B. Kinlan, R. Sagarin, and B. Gaylord. 2009. Dispersal and geographic ranges in the sea. In: J. Witman and K. Roy (eds), Marine macroecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. In press.

Denny, M.W., and B. Gaylord. 2010. Marine ecomechanics. Annual Review of Marine Science, in press.

Gaylord, B., T.M. Hill, E.D. Sanford, E.A. Lenz, L.A. Jacobs, K.N. Sato, A.D. Russell, and A. Hettinger. 2011. Functional impacts of ocean acidification in an ecologically critical foundation species. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 2586-2594. (Published as a “Highlights 2011” article for the journal).

Gaylord, B., K.J. Nickols, and L. Jurgens. 2012. Roles of transport and mixing processes in kelp forest ecology. Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 997-1007.

Hill, T.M., M. LaVigne, H.J. Spero, T.P. Guilderson, B. Gaylord, and D. Clague. 2012. Variations in seawater Sr/Ca recorded in deep-sea bamboo corals. Paleoceangraphy 27, PA3202, doi:10.1029/2011PA002260.

*Nickols, K.J., B. Gaylord, and J.L. Largier. 2012. The coastal boundary layer: Predictable current structure decreases alongshore transport and alters scales of dispersal. Marine Ecology Progress Series 464: 17-35.

*Hettinger, A., E. Sanford, T.M. Hill, A.D. Russell, K.N. Sato, J. Hoey, M. Forsch, H.N. Page, and B. Gaylord. 2012. Persistent carry-over effects of planktonic exposure to ocean acidification in the Olympia oyster. Ecology 93: 2758-2768.

*LaVigne, M., T.M. Hill, E. Sanford, B. Gaylord, A.D. Russell, E.A. Lenz, J.D. Hosfelt, M.K. Young. 2013. Effects of increased pCO2 and geographic origin on purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite elemental composition. Biogeosciences 10: 3465-3477.

*Pespeni, M.H., E. Sanford, B. Gaylord, T.M. Hill, J.D. Hosfelt, M. LaVigne, E.A. Lenz, A.D. Russell, M.K. Young, and S.R Palumbi. 2013.  Evolutionary change during experimental ocean acidification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 110: 6937-6942.

Gaylord, B., J. Hodin, and M.C. Ferner. 2013. Turbulent shear spurs settlement in larval sea urchins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 110: 6901-6906.

*Hettinger, A., E. Sanford, T.M. Hill, E.A. Lenz, A.D. Russell, and B. Gaylord. 2013. Larval carry-over effects from ocean acidification persist in the natural environment. Global Change Biology 19: 3317-3326.

*Hettinger, A., E. Sanford, T.M. Hill, J.D. Hosfelt, A.D. Russell, and B. Gaylord. 2013. The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification. Biogeosciences 10: 6629-6638.
 
*Nickols, K.J., S.H. Miller, B. Gaylord, S.G. Morgan, and J.L. Largier. 2013. Spatial differences in larval abundance within the coastal boundary layer impact supply to shoreline habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 494: 191-203.

Sanford, E., B. Gaylord, A. Hettinger, E.A. Lenz, K. Meyer, and T.M. Hill. 2014. Ocean acidification increases the vulnerability of native oysters to predation by invasive snails. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281, doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2681.

Hofmann, G.E., T.G. Evans, M.W. Kelly, J.L. Padilla-Gamino, C.A. Blanchette, L. Washburn, F. Chan, M.A. McManus, B.A. Menge, B. Gaylord, T.M. Hill, E. Sanford, M. LaVigne, J.M. Rose, L. Kapsenberg, J.M. Dutton. 2014. Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape – studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Biogeosciences 11: 1053-1064.

*Kroeker, K.J., B. Gaylord, T.M. Hill, J.D. Hosfelt, S.H. Miller, and E. Sanford. 2014. The role of temperature in determining species’ vulnerability to ocean acidification: A case study using Mytilus galloprovincialis. PLoS One 9: e100353, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100353.

*Kroeker, K.J., E. Sanford, B.M. Jellison, and B. Gaylord. 2014. Predicting the effects of ocean acidification on predator-prey interactions: A conceptual framework based on coastal molluscs. Biological Bulletin 226: 211-222.

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