Steven Morgan, Ph.D.

Steven Morgan

Unit
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Environmental Science and Policy
Bodega Marine Laboratory

Bodega Marine Laboratory
University of California Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory, PO Box 247, 2099 Westshore Rd, Bodega Bay CA 94923
Bio

Research | Teaching | Lab | Publications

Research

Interests

  • Marine ecology, evolution & behavior
  • Biological oceanography
  • Conservation biology

Research Programs

We specialize in determining how critical linkages in the complex life cycles of marine invertebrates and fishes regulate populations and communities in a dynamic coastal ocean.

 

By coupling state-of-the-art approaches in ecology and oceanography, we determine the underestimated role of behavior in enhancing survival of microscopic larvae at sea, including timing the release of gametes and larvae into the water column, regulating the extent of larval transport, returning to suitable settlement sites and surviving encounters with predators and competitors after settlement.

By conducting long-term studies over species’ ranges, we investigate the impact of selective forces on life histories and climate change on marine populations and communities.

We address these challenging questions using a blend of laboratory experiments, field studies, mathematical models, genetics, natural elemental markers and novel instruments, such as robots deployed in the ocean to experimentally test the effectiveness of vertical swimming behaviors regulating larval transport and directly determine dispersal trajectories and distances.

We put this hard-won knowledge into action for informing the conservation and management of marine resources by marine protected areas and developing the next generation of ecological indicators for assessing the health of marine ecosystems, such as the ongoing California Collaborative Fisheries Research Program.

Teaching

Undergraduate Courses

  • BIS 122 Population Biology & Ecology
  • BIS 122P Independent Research in Population Biology & Ecology
  • BIS 123  Colloquium in Marine Science
  • ESP 124 Marine & Coastal Field Ecology
  • BIS 124 Coastal Marine Research
  • ESP 111 Marine Environmental Issues

Graduate Courses

  • ECL 214 Marine Ecology: Concepts and Practice
  • ECL 290 Trends in Marine Ecology

The Morgan Lab

We are currently accepting volunteers to assist with research in the field and laboratory:

Graduate Students

  • Sam Bashevkin – Adaptations of marine larvae to survive migrations through the plankton. Trade-offs within and among life history stages, evolution of life history strategies and larval form, and the eco-evolutionary consequences of marine dispersal.
  • Connor Dibble – Interactions between physical forces of the coastal ocean and larval phases of marine organisms, affects of biophysical transport of larvae on recruitment and dynamics in marine populations.
  • Helen Killeen – Biophysical regulation of larval fish dispersal in the coastal ocean, and consequences for growth, survival, and recruitment.

Not accepting new students.

Publications

PDF reprints are available at https://escholarship.org/search or by contacting Steven Morgan 

Morgan, S.G. in press. Dispersal. In: Volume VII: Developmental Biology and Larval Ecology, The Natural History of the Crustacea, Anger, K., S. Harzsch and M. Thiel (eds.), Academic Press, New York.

Bashevkin, S.M. and Morgan, S.G. in press. Predation and Competition In: Volume VII: Developmental Biology and Larval Ecology, The Natural History of the Crustacea, Anger, K., S. Harzsch and M. Thiel (eds.), Academic Press, New York.

Shanks, A.S. and S.G. Morgan. In press. Reply to the Comment by Menge and Menge. Ecological Monographs.

Drake, P.T, C.A. Edwards, S.G. Morgan and E.V, Satterthwaite. 2018. Horizontal swimming boosts modeled larval settlement and population connectivity in a coastal upwelling region. Journal of Marine Systems 187:96-110.

Morgan, S.G., S.H. Miller, M. Robart and J.L. Largier. 2018. Nearshore larval retention and recruitment limitation at an upwelling center.Frontiers in Marine Science 5:161. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00161

Fujimura, A.G., A.J.H.M. Reniers, C.B. Paris, A.L. Shanks, J.H. MacMahan and S.G. Morgan. 2018. Cross-shore phytoplankton transport on a rip-channeled beach. Frontiers in Marine Science 5 183 doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00183

Chang, A.L., A.K. Deck, L.J. Sullivan, S.G. Morgan and M.C. Ferner. 2018. Upstream—downstream shifts in peak recruitment of the native Olympia oyster in San Francisco Bay during wet and dry years. Estuaries and Coasts 41:65-78.

Hameed, S.O., M.L. Elliott, S.G. Morgan and J. Jahncke. 2018. Interannual variation and spatial distribution of decapod larvae in a region of persistent coastal upwelling. Marine Ecology Progress Series 587:55–71.

Shanks, A.L. and S.G. Morgan. 2018. Testing the intermittent upwelling hypothesis: upwelling, downwelling, and subsidies to the intertidal zone. Ecological Monographs 88:22-35.

Morgan, S.G., A.L. Shanks, J.H. MacMahan, A.J.H.M. Reniers and F. Fedderson. 2018. Planktonic subsidies to surf zone and intertidal communities. Annual Review of Marine Science doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060514.

Fujimura, A.G., A.J.. H.M. Reniers, C.B. Paris, A.L. Shanks, J.H. MacMahan and S.G. Morgan. 2017. Numerical simulations of onshore transport of larvae and detritus to a steep pocket beach. Marine Ecology Progress Series 582:33–43.

Morgan, S.G., A.L. Shanks, J.H. MacMahan, A.J.H.M. Reniers, C.D. Griesemer, Marley Jarvis, A. Fujimura and J.A. Brown. 2017. Surf zones regulate larval supply and zooplankton subsidies to nearshore communities. Limnology and Oceanography doi: 10.1002/lno.1060

Shanks, A.L., J.H. MacMahan, S.G. Morgan, A.J.H.M. Reniers, M. Jarvis, J. Brown, A. Fujimura and C.D. Griesemer. In press. Persistent differences in horizontal gradients in phytoplankton concentration maintained by surfzone hydrodynamics. Estuaries and Coasts. DOI 10.1007/s12237-017-0278-2

Shanks, A.L., S.G. Morgan, J.H. MacMahan, A.J.H.M. Reniers. 2017. Alongshore variation in barnacle populations is determined by surfzone hydrodynamics. Ecological Monographs 87:508–532.

Taylor, A., S. Gravem and S.G. Morgan. 2017. Peak snail activity during flood tide on a wave-swept rocky shore. Marine Ecology 2017;38:e12418.

Gravem, S.A. and S.G. Morgan. 2017. Shifts in intertidal zonation and refuge use by prey after mass mortalities of two predators. Ecology 98;1006–1015.

Wheeler, S.G., T.W. Anderson, T. Bell, S.G. Morgan and J.A. Hobbs. 2016. Regional productivity predicts individual growth and recruitment of rockfishes. Limnology and Oceanography doi: 10,1002/lno.10458.

Jorgensen, S.J., A.P. Klimley, A. Muhlia-Melo and S.G. Morgan. 2016. Seasonal changes in fish assemblage structure at a shallow seamount in the Gulf of California. PeerJ  4:e2357 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2357.

Liebowitz, D.M., K.J. Nielsen, J.E. Dugan, S.G. Morgan, D.P. Malone, J.L. Largier, D.M. Hubbard and M.H. Carr. In press. Ecosystem connectivity and trophic subsidies of beach ecosystems. Ecosphere

Morgan, S.G., A.L. Shanks, J.H. MacMahan, A.J.H.M. Reniers, C.D. Griesemer, Marley Jarvis, A. Fujimura and J.A. Brown. 2016. Surfzone hydrodynamics as a key determinant of spatial variation in marine communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 283: 20161017.

Wolcott, G.G., D. Wolcott, J. Largier and S.G. Morgan. 2016. Underwater robots help scientists see where marine larvae go and how they get there. The Conversation (Sep 26, 2016). Underwater robots help scientists see where marine larvae go and how they get there.

Gravem, S.A. and S.G. Morgan. 2016. Prey state alters trait-mediated indirect interactions in rocky tidepools. Functional Ecology 30:1574–1582.

Chang, A.L., A.K. Deck, L.J. Sullivan, S.G. Morgan and M.C. Ferner. 2016. Upstream - downstream shifts in a recruitment hotspot of the native Olympia oyster in San Francisco Bay during wet and dry years. Estuaries and Coasts DOI: 10.1007/s12237-016-0182-1.

Hameed, S.O., J.W. White, S.H. Miller, K.J. Nickols, S.G. Morgan. 2016. Inverse approach to estimating larval dispersal reveals limited population connectivity along 700 km of wave-swept open coast. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 283: 20160370.

Morgan, S.G., S.A. Gravem, A.C. Lipus, M. Grabiel and B.G. Miner. 2016. Trait-mediated indirect interactions by residents of rocky shore tidepools. Marine Ecology Progress Series 552:31-46.

Shanks, A.L., S.G. Morgan, J.H. MacMahan, A.J.H.M. Reniers, R. Kudela, Marley Jarvis, J. Brown, A. Fujimura, L. Ziccarelli, and C.D. Griesemer. 2016. Variation in the abundance of Psuedo-nitzschia and domoic acid with surf zone type. Harmful Algae 55:172-178.

Wheeler, S.G., A.D. Russell, J.S. Fehrenbacher, S.G. Morgan. 2016. Evaluating chemical signatures in a coastal upwelling region to reconstruct water mass associations of settlement-stage rockfishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 550:191–206.

Cornwell, B.H., J. Neigel, S.G. Morgan and J.L. Fisher. 2016. Genetic patterns in larval and adult stages of the shore crab Hemigrapsus oregonensis along the Pacific Coast. Marine Ecology Progress Series 548:139-152. 

Burgess, S.C., M.L. Baskett, R.K. Grosberg, S.G. Morgan and RR. Strathmann. 2016. When is dispersal for dispersal? Unifying marine and terrestrial perspectives. Biological Reviews 91:867-882.

Drake, P.T, C.A. Edwards and S.G. Morgan. 2015. Upwelling winds control modeled larval recruitment in central California. Marine Ecology Progress Series 537: 71–87.

Shanks, A.L., J.H. MacMahan, S.G. Morgan, A.J.H.M. Reniers, M. Jarvis, J. Brown, A. Fujimura and C.D. Griesemer. 2015. Transport of larvae and detritus across the surf zone of a steep reflective pocket beach. Marine Ecology Progress Series 528:71-86.

Renick, V.C., T.W. Anderson, S.G. Morgan, G.N. Cherr. 2015. Interactive effects of pesticide exposure and habitat structure on behavior and predation of a marine larval fish. Ecotoxicology 24:391-400.

Morgan, S.G. 2014. Invited review: Behaviorally mediated larval transport in upwelling systems. Advances in Oceanograph Volume 2014, Article ID 364214, 17 pages.

White, J.W., S.G. Morgan and J.L. Fisher. 2014. Larval mortality rates are lower than widely expected. Ecology 95:3344–3353.

Miller, S.H. and S.G. Morgan. 2014. Temporal variation in cannibalistic infanticide: implications for reproductive success. Marine Ecology 35:1-6.

Fujimura, A., A.J.H.M. Reniers, C.B. Paris, A.L. Shanks, J.H. MacMahan and S.G. Morgan. 2014. Numerical simulations of larval transport into a rip-channeled surf zone. Limnology and Oceanography 59:1434-1447.

Shanks, A. L., S.G. Morgan, J. MacMahan, A.J.H.M eReniers, M. Jarvis, J. Brown, A. Fujimura, and C.D. Griesemer. 2014. Onshore transport of plankton by the internal tides and upwelling-relaxation events. Marine Ecology Progress Series 502:39–51.

Fisher, J.L., W.T. Peterson and S.G. Morgan. 2014. Does latitudinal variation in the intensity and persistence of upwelling regulate larval advection and supply? Marine Ecology Progress Series 503:123–137.

Morgan, S.G., J.L. Fisher, S.T. McAfee, S.H. Miller, M. Sheridan, J.L Largier and J. Neigel. 2014. Larval transport and flux in a low-inflow estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 37:1269-1283.

Rasmuson, L.K., J.L. Couture and S.G. Morgan. 2014. Weakly synchronized larval release maintained in the presence of predatory fishes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 454:26-31.

Burgess, S.C., K.J. Nickols, C.D. Griesemer, L.A.K. Barnett, A.G. Dedrick, E.V. Satterthwaite, L. Yamane, S.G. Morgan, J.W. White and L.W. Botsford, 2014. Beyond larval connectivity: how empirical methods can quantify population persistence to improve marine protected area design. Ecological Applications 24:257–270.

Fujimura, A., A. Reniers, C. Paris, A.L. Shanks, J. MacMahan, S. Morgan, S. 2013. Slope-dependent biophysical modeling of surf zone larval transport. Coastal Dynamics 2013:661–670.

Drake, P.T, C.A. Edwards, S.G. Morgan and E.P Dever. In press. Influence of behavior on larval dispersal and population connectivity in a realistic simulation of the California Current System. Journal of Marine Research

Nickols, K.J., S.H. Miller, B. Gaylord, S.G. Morgan and J. L. Largier. In press. Spatial differences in larval supply within the coastal boundary layer impact availability to shoreline habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series

Goebel, N.L., C.A. Edwards, J.P. Zehr, M.J. Follows and S.G. Morgan. In press. Modeled phytoplankton diversity and productivity in the California Current System. Ecological Modeling.

Miller, S.H. and S.G. Morgan. 2013. Phenotypic plasticity in larval vertical migrations in estuarine and coastal populations. Journal of Experimental Marine 449:45–50.

Rasmuson, L.K. and S.G. Morgan. 2013. Fish predation after weakly synchronized larval release in a coastal upwelling system: potential variation in a selective regime among coasts. Marine Ecology Progress Series 490:185–198.

Coates, J. H., K. A. Hovel, J. L. Butler, P. Klimleyand S.G. Morgan. 2013. Movement of a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate:  implications for restoration strategy and population recovery of pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata). Marine ecology Progress Series 486:189-201.

Kunze, H.B., S.G. Morgan and K.M.M. Lwiza. 2013. A field test of the behavioral regulation of larval transport. Marine ecology Progress Series 487:71-87.

Aguirre,J.D., S.H. Miller, S.G. Morgan and D.J. Marshall. 2013. Relatedness affects the number, spatial arrangement and phenotype of colonizers in four sessile marine invertebrates. Oikos 122:881-888.

Miller, S.H., S.G. Morgan, J.W. White and P.G. Green. 2013. Feature article: Trace element signatures in larval soft tissues reveal larval transport, but not population connectivity. Marine ecology Progress Series 481:1-10.

Miller, S.H. and S.G. Morgan. 2013. Interspecific differences in depth preference regulate larval transport in an upwelling regime. Marine Ecology Progress Series 476:301−306.

Hwang, H.-M., R. S. Carr, G. N. Cherr, P. G. Green, E. D. Grosholz, L. Judah, S. G. Morgan, S. Ogle, V. K. Rashbrook, W. L. Rose, S. J. The, C. A Vines and S. L. Anderson. 2013. Sediment quality assessment in tidal salt marshes in northern California: an evaluation of multiple lines of evidence approach. Science of the Total Environment 454455:189198.

Miller, S.H., S.G. Morgan, J.W. White and P.G. Green. 2013. Interannual variability in an atlas of trace element signatures for determining population connectivity. Marine ecology Progress Series 474:179-190.

Altermatt, F., A. Bieger and S.G. Morgan. 2012. Habitat characteristics and metapopulation dynamics of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 468:85-93.

Morgan, S.G., J.L. Fisher, S.T. McAfee, J.L Largier and C.M. Halle. 2012. Limited recruitment during relaxation events: larval advection and behavior in an upwelling system. Limnology and Oceanography 57:457-470.

Incardona, J.P., C.A. Vines, T.L. Linbo, M.S. Myers, C. Sloan, B. Anulacion, D. Boyd, G.M.Ylitalo, T.K. Collier, S.G. Morgan, G.N. Cherr and N.L. Scholz. 2012. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering. PLoS ONE 7(2): e30116. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030116.

Incardona, J.P., C.A. Vines, Bernadita F. Anulacion, D.H. Baldwin, H.L. Day, B.L. French, J.S. Labenia, T.L. Linbo, M.S. Myers, O.P. Olson1, C.A. Sloan, S. Sol, F.J. Griffin, K. Menard, S.G. Morgan, E.H. Smith, J.E. West, T.K. Collier, G.M. Ylitalo, G.N. Cherr and N.L. Scholz. 2012. Unexpectedly high rates of early life stage mortality among herring spawned in the 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill impact zone in San Francisco Bay. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences 109:E51–E58 doi:10.1073/pnas.1108884109.

Marshall, D.J. and S.G. Morgan. 2011. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of linked life-history stages in the sea. Current Biology 21:R718–R725.

Bjorkstedt, E. P., R. Goerike, S. McClatchie, E. Weber, W. Watson, N. Lo, B. Peterson, B. Emmett, J. Peterson, R. Durazo, G. Gaxiola-Castro, F. Chavez, J. T. Pennington, C. A. Collins, J. Field, S. Ralston, K. Sakuma, S. J. Bograd, F. B. Schwing, Y. Xue, W. J. Sydeman, S. A. Thompson, J. A. Santora, J. Largier, C. Halle, S. Morgan, K. P. B. Merkens, J. A. Hildebrand and L. M. Munger. 2011. State of the California Current 2009-2010: Regional variation persists through transition from La Nina to El Nino (and back?). 2011. State of the California Current, CalCOFI Report 51:1-31.

Morgan, S.G., J.L. Fisher and J.L Largier. 2011. Laval entrainment in the lee of a small headland: recruitment hotspots along windy coasts. Limnology and Oceanography 56:161-178.

Morgan, S.G., J.W. White, S.T. McAfee and R.G. Schmitt. 2011. Weak synchrony in the timing of larval release in upwelling regions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 425:103-112.

Smalling, K. L., S. G. Morgan and K. K. Kuivila. 2010. Accumulation of current-use and legacy pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29: 2593–2599.

Shanks, A.L, S.G. Morgan, J. MacMahan and A.J.H.M. Reniers. 2010. Surf zone physical and morphological regime as determinants of temporal and spatial variation in larval recruitment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 392:140-150.

Morgan, S.G. and J.L. Fisher. 2010. Larval behavior regulates nearshore retention and offshore migration in an upwelling shadow and along the open coast. Marine Ecology Progress Series 404:109-126

Morgan, S.G., J.L. Fisher and A.J. Mace. 2009. Larval recruitment in a region of strong, persistent upwelling and recruitment limitation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 394:79-99.

Morgan, S.G., J.L. Fisher, S.H. Miller, S.T. McAfee and J.L Largier. 2009. Nearshore larval retention in a region of strong upwelling and recruitment limitation. Ecology 90: 3489-3502.

Morgan, S.G., J.L. Fisher, A.J. Mace, L. Akins, A.M. Slaughter and S. M. Bollens. 2009. Cross-shelf distributions and recruitment of crab postlarvae in a region of strong upwelling. Marine Ecology Progress Series 380:173–185.

Shinen, J.S. and S.G. Morgan. 2009. Mechanisms of invasion resistance: competition among intertidal mussels promotes establishment of invasive species and displacement of native species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 383:187–197.

Shinen, J.S. S.G. Morgan and A.L. Chan. 2009. Invasion resistance on rocky shores:
direct and indirect effects of three native predators on an exotic and a native prey species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 378:47–54.

Zacherl, D.C., S.G. Morgan, S.E. Swearer and R.R. Warner. 2009. A shell of its former self: can Ostrea lurida Carpenter 1864 larval shells reveal information about a recruit’s birth location? Journal of Shellfish Research 28: 23-32.

Tavernetti, R., S. Morgan and Q. Yu. 2009. Effect of biological fouling on passive collectors used to estimate fish recruitment. Journal of Fish Biology 75:699-706.

Morgan, S.G. and J.R. Anastasia. 2008. Behavioral tradeoff conserves transport while increasing the risk of predation across the ranges of marine species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:222-227.

Carson, H.S., S.G. Morgan and P.G. Green. 2008. Fine-scale chemical fingerprinting of an open coast crustacean for the assessment of population connectivity. Marine Biology 153:327-335

Morgan, S. G. 2007. Tidal rhythms, p. 469-473, In: Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores, M. W. Denny and S. D. Gaines editors, University of California Press

Jorgensen, S.J., D. M. Kaplan, A. P. Klimley, S. G. Morgan, M. R. O’Farrell, L. W. Botsford. 2006. Limited movement in blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus): internal structure of the home range. Marine Ecology Progress Series 327:157-170

Mace, A. J. and S. G. Morgan. 2006. Biological and physical coupling in the lee of a small headland: contrasting larval transport mechanisms in an upwelling region. Marine Ecology Progress Series 324:185-196

Mace, A. J. and S. G. Morgan. 2006. Larval accumulation in the lee of a small headland: Implications the design of marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series 318:19-29

Anderson, S. L., G. N. Cherr, S. G. Morgan, C. A. Vines, R. M. Higashi, W. A. Bennett, W. L. Rose, A. Brooks and R. M. Nisbet. 2006. Integrating contaminant responses in indicator saltmarsh species. Marine Environmental Research 62: S317-S321.

Morgan, S. G., S. A. Spilseth, H. M. Page, A. J. Brooks and E. D. Grosholz. 2006. Spatial and temporal movement of the lined shore crab Pachygrapsus crassipes in salt marshes and its utility as an indicator of habitat condition. Marine Ecology Progress Series 314:271-281

Spilseth, S. A. and S. G. Morgan. 2005. Evaluation of internal elastomer tags for small, mature crabs. Crustaceana 78: 1383-1388.

Miner, B. G., S. E. Sultan, S. G. Morgan, D. K. Padilla, R. A. Relyea. 2005. Ecological consequences of phenotypic plasticity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:685-692

Roughan, M., A. J. Mace, J. L. Largier, S. G. Morgan, J. L. Fisher, M. L. Carter. 2005. Density driven headland retention in a strong upwelling system: Implications for larval transport. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C10027, 1-18.

Morgan, S. G. 2005. Larval migration between the Hudson River estuary and New York Bight, p. 157-170. In: Levinton, J. S. & J. R. Waldman (eds.) The Hudson River Estuary. Cambridge University Press.

McManus, M.A., J Largier, E. Palomino, L. Wilkinson, L. Washburn, K. Stolzenbach, B. Sanders, S. Morgan, M. Stacey, E. Palomino, F. Wright and J. S. Scott. 2003. Data Management Techniques for NEOCO, the Network for Environmental Observations of the Coastal Ocean. Sea Technology 44(8):54-60

Strathmann, R. R., T. P. Hughes, A. M. Kuris, K. C. Lindeman, S. G. Morgan, J. M. Pandolfi and R. R. Warner. 2002. Evolution of self-recruitment and its consequences for marine populations. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:377-396

Sponaugle, S. G. Boehlert, R. Cowen, C. Grimes, M. Kingsford, J. Leis, K. Lindeman, S. Morgan, J. Munro, J. Pineda and A. Shanks. 2002. Predicting self–recruitment in marine populations: Biophysical correlates. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:341-376

Swearer, S., S. Thorrold, J. Shima, M. Hellberg, G. Jones, D. Robertson, K. Selkoe, G. Ruiz, S. Morgan and R. Warner. 2002. Evidence for self-recruitment in benthic marine populations. Bulletin of Marine Science70:251-272

Thorrold, S. R., R. S. Burton, G. P. Jones, M. E. Hellberg, S. E. Swearer, J. E. Niegel, S. G. Morgan and R. R. Warner. 2002. Quantifying larval retention and connectivity in marine populations with artificial and natural markers: can we do it right? Bulletin of Marine Science 70:273-290

Kingsford, M. J., J. Leis, A. Shanks K. Lindeman, S. Morgan and J. Pineda. 2002. Sensory environments, larval abilities and local self-recruitment. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:309-340

Heck, K. L, Jr., L. D. Coen and S. G. Morgan. 2001. Pre- and post-settlement factors as determinants of juvenile blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance: results from the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series 222:163-176.

Morgan, S. G. and S. T. McAfee. 2001. Getting to the point: self-defense in crab larvae. Natural History. March 2001.

Morgan, S. G. 2000. The larval ecology of marine communities, p. 159-181. In: Bertness, M. D., S. D. Gaines and M. E. Hay (eds.) The Ecology of Marine Communities. Sinauer Associates, New York.

Miner, B. and S. G. Morgan. 2000. Postlarval chromatophores as an adaptation to ultraviolet radiation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

Hovel, K. A. and S. G. Morgan. 1999. Vulnerability of estuarine crab larvae to ultraviolet radiation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 237:89-106.

Christy, J. H. and S. G. Morgan. 1998. Estuarine immigration by crab postlarvae: mechanisms, reliability and adaptive significance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 174:51-65.

Anastasia, J. C., S. G. Morgan, N. S. Fisher. 1998. Tagging crustacean larvae: assimilation and retention of trace elements. Limnology and Oceanography 43: 362-368.

Morgan, S. G. and J. H. Christy. 1997. Planktivorous fishes as selective agents for the timing of larval release. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 209:89-101.

Hovel, K. A. and S. G. Morgan. 1997. Planktivory as a selective force for reproductive synchrony and larval migration. Marine Ecology Progress Series 157:79-95.

Morgan, S. G. 1996. Plasticity in reproductive timing by crabs in adjacent tidal regimes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 139:105-118.

Morgan, S. G. 1996. Influence of tidal variation on reproductive timing. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 206:237-251.

Morgan, S. G. and J. H. Christy. 1996. Survival of marine larvae under the countervailing selective pressures of photodamage and predation. Limnology and Oceanography:41:498-504.

Morgan, S. G., R. K. Zimmer-Faust, K. L. Heck, Jr. and L. D. Coen. 1996. Population regulation of blue crabs, Callinectes, in the northern Gulf of Mexico: postlarval supply. Marine Ecology Progress Series 133:73-88.

McAfee, S. T. and S. G. Morgan. 1996. Resource utilization by five sympatric parrotfishes in the San Blas archipelago, Panama. Marine Biology 125:427-437.

Morgan, S. G. 1995. Life and death in the plankton: larval mortality and adaptation, pp. 279-321. In: Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, L. McEdward (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Morgan, S. G. 1995. The timing of larval release, pp. 157-191. In: Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, L. McEdward (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Morgan, S. G. and J. H. Christy. 1995. Adaptive significance of the timing of larval release by crabs. American Naturalist 145: 457-479.

Rabalais, N. N., F. R. Burditt, Jr., L. D. Coen, B. E. Cole, C. Eleuterius, K. L. Heck, Jr., T. A. McTigue, S. G. Morgan, H. M. Perry, F. M. Truesdale, R. K. Zimmer-Faust and R. J. Zimmerman. 1995. Settlement of Callinectes sapidus megalopae on artificial collectors in four Gulf of Mexico estuaries. Bulletin of Marine Science 57: 855-876.

Morgan, S. G. and J. H. Christy. 1994. Plasticity, constraint and optimality in reproductive timing. Ecology 75: 2185-2203.

Morgan, S. G. 1994. Influence of tidal regime on the timing of larval release by crabs: Implications for recruitment success, pp. 323-328. In: K. R. Dyer and R. J. Orth (eds.), Changes in Fluxes in Estuaries: Implications from Science to Management, Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark.

Zimmer-Faust, R. K., D. R. Fielder, K. L. Heck, Jr., L. D. Coen and S. G. Morgan. 1994. Effects of tethering on predatory escape by juvenile blue crabs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 111: 299-303.

Morgan, S. G. 1992. Predation by planktonic and benthic invertebrates on larvae of estuarine crabs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 163: 91-110.

Morgan, S. G. 1990. Impact of planktivorous fishes on the dispersal, hatching and morphology of estuarine crab larvae. Ecology 71: 1639-1652.

Morgan, S. G. 1989. The adaptive significance of spination in estuarine crab zoeae. Ecology 70: 464-482.

Morgan, S. G. 1987. Selection on hatching rhythms and dispersal patterns of estuarine crab larvae: avoidance of physiological stress by larval export? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 113: 71-78.

Morgan, S. G. 1987. Behavioral and morphological antipredatory adaptations of decapod zoeae. Oecologia 73: 321-480.

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